Gene sequencing has become possible as life forwarded and is really important because it can help to identify genes and then treat cancer. We could either create small molecule Inhibitors using the knowledge or could use this knowledge for targeted therapy. Studying gene mutations would result in the possibility of finding drugs that could treat them. These can act as biomarkers as it would ease in the identification of mutations and fight cancer.
Mutations may be inherited or acquired. Mutations due to UV rays and smoke exposure respond to checkpoint blockade immunotherapy in the best manner because of numerous neoantigens.
According to Mardis, cancer vaccines can be prepared to strike a person’s own immune response. After identifying mutations and neoantigens that show distinct binding to HLA molecules we can prepare effective vaccines against cancer. “The impact of vaccines is very much directed toward the tumor and not toward the normal cells.” Genomic characterization would greatly help in treating individual cancers with the best approach.
Scientists wanted to compare the effects of mastectomy and tumor removal from the breast in breast cancer patients. They also wanted to evaluate the life after these processes for which they conducted a survey called Breast-Q. Women with 40 years and younger age were examined and the response rate was 79% with 561 women. Women with breast conservation surgery showed better life than those who had a unilateral or bilateral mastectomy. This was for the physiological, mental, sexual and physical well being.
In a survey of women who were median 5.8 years out of surgery and 10% among these had a BRCA mutation whose impact wasn’t to be studied on the surgery. 89% of women after mastectomy had reconstruction and we didn’t know how time affected this. 45% of women had past treatments through radiations before mastectomy and were victims of miserable life after that. Still, we did not know about pre-operative life of these women and also its effects in long-term so here we need to work for better outcomes.