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Ovarian Cancer – Types and Treatments

Ovarian cancer is the condition when cancer cells begin to grow uncontrollably. This particular cancer basically affects the ladies who have been through the menopause.

Types of ovarian cancer

In total, there are approximately 30 different types of ovarian cancer. But, there are only four types that are common to see in cancer patients. Such as:
Epithelial tumor- This type of ovarian tumor arises from the cells or tissues that line the outer surface of the ovary. Epithelial cancer further includes numerous types such as mucinous adenomas, Brenner tumor, and serous adenomas. This particular cancer accounts for around 85 % to 90 % of total ovarian cancers.
Germ Cell Tumors- This type of condition begins from the reproductive cells associated with the ovaries. Some general germ cell diseases are endodermal sinus, teratomas and dysgerminomas tumors. This cancer generally occurs in women and teenagers. Approximately 90% of the cancer patients suffering from ovarian germ cell malignancies are cured.
Stromal Tumor- This ovarian cancer involves the growth of connective tissue cells that support the ovary and those that give rise to female progesterone, hormones, and estrogen. Stromal tumor is quite rare and counted among the low-grade cancers. This cancer comprises theca cells, fibroblasts, and granulosa cells.
Small cell carcinoma- It also comes under the category of rarely found ovarian cancers. And, it is also not clear that the cells involve the growth of ovarian cancer are from sex-cord stromal cells, germ cells or epithelial cells.

Symptoms of Ovarian cancer

Some of the common ovarian cancer symptoms include:

  • Changes in bowel habits like constipation
  • Urgent and frequent urination
  • Pain or discomfort during sexual intercourse
  • Back pain
  • Heartburn or indigestion
  • Pain in the lower part of the body, pelvis or lower abdomen
  • Feeling full quickly while eating
  • Difficulty in eating
  • Bloating problem
  • Swollen stomach

Ovarian cancer treatment and therapy options

Ovarian cancer treatment varies depending on the size, stage, and type of tumor, patient’s age and other health issues. Some of the ovarian cancer treatment includes:
Surgery- Under this treatment for cancer, the doctor generally removes the fallopian tubes, ovaries and other surrounding tissues that are affected. In medical terms, it is called as a biopsy.
Chemotherapy- Chemotherapy involves the use of medications to destroy the cancer cells. Under this treatment, those drugs are given to the cancer patients that are toxic to the cells. These medications destroy the cancer cells or prevent their growth.
Radiation Therapy- Radiation therapy is the treatment, under which high energy radiations are exposed through the cancer cells. The therapy may be used if cancer spreads in the reproductive system.
Hormone therapy- Hormone therapy is generally included in the treatment plan to thwart estrogen from reaching the cancer cells. By preventing the delivery of estrogen, the growth of the cancer cells gets slow down. This therapy includes leuprolide, aromtase inhibitor, goserelin, and tamoxifen.

Can ovarian cancer be cured?

Ovarian cancer if detected at the early stages can be cured with close follow-up and treatments. But, if it is not diagnosed for years, then the chances of patient’s death are high.

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