Bladder cancer begins when the cells within the urinary bladder grow abnormally due to which they multiply and divide. Most of the bladder cancers are formed in the lining of the bladder which is known as urothelial carcinomas.
Types of bladder cancer
The type of cell where cancer begins determines the type of bladder cancer. The types of bladder cancer include the following:
Transitional Cell Carcinoma – Transitional Cell Carcinoma begins in the urothelial cells, the inner layer of the bladder.
Squamous Cell Bladder Cancer – The occurrence of this cancer is rare but may be more progressive. It begins with the squamous cells that are thin, flat cells that might form in the bladder after long-term infection or irritation.
Adenocarcinoma – Adenocarcinoma is a type of bladder cancer that is aggressive and develops in the inner lining of the bladder due to chronic irritation or inflammation.
Symptoms of bladder cancer
There are a number of symptoms that indicate the bladder cancer, below are some of the common symptoms that should not be ignored.
- Blood in urine
- Frequent urination
- Painful urination
- Pain in the lower abdominal area
- Pain in the lower back
Bladder cancer treatment options
The effective treatment of cancer is determined by the stage of bladder cancer, symptoms, health and age of the patient.
For Stage 0 and Stage 1
Treating the bladder cancer for stage 0 and stage 1 includes the following treatment methods:
- Surgery to remove the tumor from the bladder.
- Chemotherapy or immunotherapy, that involves the medication process to attack the cancer cells.
For Stage 2 and Stage 3
For treating the stage 2 or stage 3 bladder cancer following treatments are considered:
- Removal of a part of bladder followed by chemotherapy.
- Radical cystectomy which is the removal of the whole bladder.
- Chemotherapy, radiation therapy or immunotherapy to shrink the tumor before surgery.
Treating a stage 4 bladder cancer includes:
- Chemotherapy to relive the symptoms and extend life.
- Radical cystectomy and removal of surrounding lymph nodes.
- Surgery which is followed by chemotherapy, radical therapy or immunotherapy to kill the remaining cancer cells.
- Clinical trial drugs.